1. Australian Institute of Criminology. (2012). Australian crime: facts and figures 2011.
2. Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Parent guide to helping children manage conflict, aggression and bullying. Retrieved from:http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/bullying/ on 07 January 2015.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control. (2012). Understanding youth violence. Fact sheet. Division of Violence Protection.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention l.Teen dating violence. Retrieved from:http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/teen_dating_violence.html on 12 January 2015.
5. Nickerson, A., & Slater, E.. (2009). School and community violence and victimization as predictors of adolescent suicidal behavior. School Psychology Review, Volume 38:2, pp.218-232.
6. Horowitz, K., Weine, S., & Jekel, J. (1995). PTSD symptoms in urban adolescent girls: Compounded community trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 34, pp.1353-1361.
7. Shields, N., Nadasen, K., & Pierce, L.. (2008). The effects of community violence on children in Cape Town, South Africa. Child Abuse & Neglect,Vlolume 32:5, p.589.
8. Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M.D., Haynie, D.L., Ruan, J. & Scheidt, P.C. (2003). Relationships between bullying and violence among US youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157:4, pp.348-53.
9. Rosenfeld, R., Edberg, M., Fang, X. (2013) Economics and youth violence: crime, disadvantage and community. NYU Press. p 257
10. Ibid, p.266
11. World Health Organisation . (2002) Youth Violence. Retrieved from:http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/en/youthviolencefacts.pdf on 12 January 2015.
12. Hann, D. M., & Borek, N. T. (2002). NIMH taking stock of risk factors for child/youth externalizing behavior problems. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health, Volume 2.
13. Mitchell, S., Lewin, A., Horn, I., Rasmussen, A., Sanders-Phillips, K., Valentine, D., & Joseph, J.. (2009). Violence exposure and the association between young African American mothers' discipline and child problem Behavior. Academic Pediatrics, Volume 9:3, pp.157-63.
14. Weiner, M.D., Sussman, S., Sun, P. & Dent, C. (2005). Explaining the link between violence perpetration, victimization and drug use. Addictive Behaviors, Volume 30:6, pp 1261-1266.
15. Op cit, Rosenfeld. p.266
16. Op cit Rosenfeld , p.268; Op cit Hann
17. Op cit Australian Psychological Society
19. Op cit World Health Organisation
This topic was last reviewed February 2015.